नयाँ सार्वजनिक व्यवस्थापन

{"authorname":"default_author","author":"सुनिल आचार्य", "thumbnailLabel":"Jyoti Bikas Bank"}


  • सुनील आचार्य


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cy{tGqdf ljZjJofkLs/0f, ljZjdf nf]stGqsf] nx/df j[l4, /fHosf] :jljj]sLo clwsf/df ;Lldttf, /fHo4f/f pknJw u/fOg] ;]jfx?sf] y}nf]nfO{ k[ys k[ys efudf ljefhg, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / ahf/ Joj:yfkg l;4fGtsf] a9\bf] e"ldsf k|s6 x'g yfNof] . o;n] ubf{ ;/sf/n] cfkm\gf] IfdtfnfO{ Vofn u/L cToGt s'zn ?kdf v]Ng ;Sg] e"ldsf v6'[ofpg] / cfk\mgf] Ifdtf a[l4 tkm{ pGd'v eO{ ;a} s'/f cfkm}n] dfq u5'{ eGg] cx+sf/L ;f]rsf] ;6\6fdf ;xh lgodgstf{sf] e"ldsf v]Ng' kb{5 eGg] ;f]rfO{sf] ljsf; eof] . jt{dfg ljZj kl/l:ylt cfhsf] krf; jif{ eGbf cl3sf] l:ylt eGbf ljNs'n leGg 5 . xfn lghL If]q km:6fpFb} cfPsf] 5 . 

ljleGg :yfgLo lgsfo / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? ;]jf If]qdf ;an x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ . ;/sf/sf] sfo{If]qsf] cjwf/0ffdf ljZjJofkL kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 . ;/sf/L If]qsf] Psflwsf/sf] 7fpF lghLs/0f / :jtGq ahf/ Joj:yfn] lng yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L lgsfon] /fli6«o ljsf;sf] gLlt lgwf{/0f ug]{ / To;sf] sfof{GjognfO{ cg'udg ug]{ sfo{df ;Lldt /fvL cy{tGqnfO{ a9L ahf/d'vL agfO{ o; If]qdf cfk\mgf] lgoGq0f v's'nf] kfb{} hfg'kb{5 eGg] wf/0ff ;j{JofkL xF'b} cfPsf] 5 . ;g\ !(^) lt/ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;/sf/L gLltx/msf] sfof{Gjogtkm{ dfq s]lGb|t ul/Psf] lyof] . To;a]nf;Dd u}/;/sf/L jf lghL If]q Psf+sL /mkdf g} lyP . 

ltgsf] e"ldsf / dfGotf ;/sf/L jf lghL If]q sf] t'ngfdf Hofb} Go"g jf uf}0f lyof] . /fhgLltaf6 clt k|efljt sd{rf/LtGq, /fhgLlt1sf] lk5nUu' kl/kf6L / /fhgLlt g} ;fj{hlgs gLltdf xfjL ePsf] sf/0faf6 Toltv]/sf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ultxLg, lzlyn / k6\of/nfUbf] lyof] . clxn] k|foM elgg] h:tf] r':t, b'/m:t, ;an jf tGb'/m:t lyPg . ;Q/Lsf] bzs  b]lv kl/jlt{t kl/l:ylt cg's"n rNg;Sg] ultzLn Pj+ kl/0ffdd'vL Joj:yfkgsf] vf]hL x'g yfn]sf] xf] . k/Dk/fut /mkdf rNb} cfPsf] ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgdf b]lvPsf cIfdtfsf] sf/0f g} To;df Jofks ;'wf/sf] k|of]u eO{ gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfsf] hGDf ePsf] xf] . 

;'wf/sf] of] k|s[of oBlk hf/L g} 5 . ;g\ !(() sf] bzse/ ljZjdf k|hftGqsf] nx/ km}lnPsf] lyof] . o; s|ddf d"ntM ljZjJofkLs/0f, cfly{s pbf/Ls/0f, lghLs/0f, a9bf cGt/f{li6«o k|lt:kwf{ Pj+ lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] If]qdf vf;u/L ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf cfPsf] tLa| kl/jt{gx?af6 lgl:sPsf gjLg r'gf}ltx/m ;fdgf ug{ k'/fgf] Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL c;Ifd / c;kmn ;fljt x'g cfPsf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgdf sd{rf/LnfO{ cf}krfl/s / k|s[of pGd'v sfo{ljlwaf6 6f9f /fvL nIo adf]lhdsf] kl/0ffd Nofpg ;an / ;Ifd x'g] vfnsf] nrsbf/ ;+/rgfsf] cfjZos 5 . jf:tjdf eGg] xf] eg] sfo{bIftf, k|efjsfl/tf / ldtJolotf4f/f gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] ;an kIf xf] . 

ljZjdf clxn] cfP/ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg ;'wf/sf] nx/ g} rln/x]sf] 5 . /fHo ;~rfng k|s[ofsf] d'Vo sfo{ ;"lr g} ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgdf ;'wf/ x'g k'u]sf] 5 . z';f;g, ;dfj]zLs/0f, k|hftfGqLs/0f, nf]stflGqs ;f]rfO,{ Jofj;flostf, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, ljZjJofkLs/0f, lghLs/0f / Joj:yfksLo k|aGwh:tf ;d;fdlos zAbfjnLx/mnfO{ gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] ckl/xfo{ sf/s tTj dflgg yflnPsf] 5 . t;y{ gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] If]qdf Pp6f gf}nf] k|of]u jf df]8n dfq xf]Og, k|zf;lgs hutsf] s|flGts} /mkdf cFufNg yflnPsf] 5 .
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 ljåfgx?n] gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ ljleGg gofF gofF gfdaf6 ;Daf]wg ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . o;df cfhsfn Joj:yfkgafb, ahf/f]Gd'v ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g, ;/sf/sf] k'gMcfljisf/ / ;/sf/sf] k'gM;+/rgf h:tf pkgfdx/m lbO{g] ul/Psf] 5 . ljleGg ljåfgx?af6 gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] kl/efiff o;k|sf/ ul/Psf] kfO{G5 M–
       @=! ls|:6f]km/ kf]ln6 M–  sd{rf/LtGqsf] k|fs[lts c;Ifdtfx/mnfO{ kvfNgsf] nflu /fd|f] Joj:yfkgn] Pp6f cfwf/ pknAw u/fpg] 5,h;sf] lgldQ lghL If]qsf] cg'zf;gnfO{ ;fj{hlgs If]qdf k|j]z u/fpg ;lsG5 . o;af6 /fhg}lts lgoGq0f ;'b[9, ah]6sf] s6f}lt, k]zfut :jfoQtfsf] Go"lgs/0f, ;fj{hlgs ;]jf ;+3x/mnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg] / ;dfg k|lt:k4f{Tds Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{ ;lsg] x'G5 .
      @=@ cfj]g O{ xo'U; M of] Ps Joj:yfkg tl/sfdf Pp6f ;fdfGo jf ;fgf] kl/j{tg dfq xf]Og, a/m ;dfhdf ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfdf / ;/sf/ tyf gful/s ;dfh aLrsf] ;DaGwdf ;d]t cfd"n kl/j{tg xf] .
 gful/ssf]  ;jf]{Qd lxtsf nflu ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf dfldnfx¿sf] ;~rfng ug{'nfO{  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg elgG5 . pknSw ;|f]t ;fwgsf] plrt kl/rfng u/L ;f+u7lgs nIo xfl;n ug{ rfFhf]kfFhf] ldnfpg'nfO{ ;d]t Joj:yfkg eg]/ a'lemG5 . k|zf;g zAb ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf / Joj:yfkg zAb lghL If]qdf k|rlnt 5 . k|zf;gsf] t'ngfTds cWoogkl5 o;df Jofks ;'wf/sf] vfFrf] b]lvof] . oxL vfFrf] k"/f ug{ k|zf;gdf lghL If]qsf /fd|f u'0fx¿ c+uLsf/ u/L o;nfO{  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg eGg ;'? ul/of] . cyf{t\ k/Dk/fut / Ps;"qLo k|zf;g Joj:yfdf lghL If]qsf /fd|f u'0f c+uLsf/ ul/Pkl5 of]  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf gfdaf6 kl/lrt eof] . oxL kl/jt{g:j¿k ;fj{hlgs If]qdf lghLs/0f, ;]jf s/f/, sfo{;Dkfbg ;Demf}tf, u'0f:t/ k/LIf0f, Joj:yfkg k/LIf0f, ;]jfu|fxLsf u'gf;f ;'g'jfOh:tf ljifon] k|j]z kfP .
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-s_ of]hgf Joj:yfkg d'n'ssf] ;jf{ËL0f ljsf;sf nflu pko'Qm of]hgf th{'df ug]{, hg;xeflutf a9fpg] / To;sf] k|efjsf/L ;~rfng         ug]{ sfo{ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] ub{5 . u|fxfssf] dfucg';f/sf] gLlt, sfo{qmd th{'df u/L u|fxfssf] dfu / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df To;nfO{ ;~rfng ug{'kb{5 . h;sf nflu cfjZostfsf cfwf/df gLlt th{'df / u|fxfssf] dfusf cfwf/df of]hgf th{'df, 5gf]6 / sfof{Gjog ug{'kb{5 .
-v_ hgzlQm Joj:yfkg  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg ;~rfng ug]{ Ps dfq hLjGt / rnfodfg cfwf/ dfgj ;|f]t xf] . k|efjsf/L gLlt th{df b]lv of]hgfsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu dxTjk"0f{ kIf lghL If]qdf bIf, of]Uo, ;Lko'Qm hgzlQm cfjZostf kb{5 . of]Uo, bIf, k|lt:kwL{ hgzlQmn] dfq ;du| Joj:yfkgdf of]ubfg ug{ ;Sg] ePsfn] of]Uotd\ hgzlQmsf] k|flKt, ljsf;, pkof]u / ;Def/ ug]{ sfo{  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf nflu ckl/xfo{ /xG5 .
-u_ ;+u7g Joj:yfkg M  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;+u7gsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf /xG5 . 5l/tf], ljs]G›Ls[t, cfw'lgs k|ljlwo'Qm ;+u7gn] dfq ck]lIft kl/0ffd lbg ;Qm5 . s]G›Ls[t, clws kb;f]kfgo'Qm, clwsf/lgolGqt ;+u7gn] plrt k|ltkmn glbPsfn] g} ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] l;4fGtn] pko'Qm ;+u7g ;+/rgfdf hf]8 lbPsf] xf] .
-3_ ;]jfsf] Joj:yfkg /fHosf] pTklt g} gful/ssf] ;]jfsf nflu ePsf] xf] . o:tf ;]jf ;'ljwf ldtJooL, l56f]–5l/tf] Pj+ k|efjsf/L x'g'kb{5 . lghL If]q;d]tsf /fd|f u'0fx¿ cjnDag u/L ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ ;]jfsf nflu ;Fu;Fu} nfg'kb{5 . gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] ;]jfsf] k|efjsfl/tf / ;]jfu|fxLsf] ;Gt'li6df hf]8 lbG5 .
-ª_ ah]6 Joj:yfkg ah]6sf] ;'lglZrttfljgf ;]jf k|jfx jf ljsf; lgdf{0f s'g} klg k|lqmof cufl8 a9\g ;Sb}g . ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] ah]6sf] ;d]t Joj:yf ldnfpg'kb{5 . ;|f]tsf] klxrfg, k|flKt, pkof]u, n]vf+sg / n]vfk/LIf0f;Ddsf sfo{ ah]6 jf ljQ Joj:yfkgcGtu{t kb{5g\ .
o;/L ;fj{hlgs dfldnfsf] ;~rfng ug]{  gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{If]q Jofks / ultzLn x'g}kb{5 . Go"gtd ;|f]tsf] clwstd kl/rfng u/L cTo'td glthf xfl;n u/fpg' Joj:yfkgsf] sf}zn xf] . kl5Nnf] ;do o; If]qdf cfPsf gjLg ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkg, gofF ;fj{hlgs ;]jf / gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf /fd|f kIfx¿sf] cjnDag ub}{ s'zn Joj:yfkgsf dfWodaf6 ;fwg ;|f]tsf] k|efjsf/L kl/rfng u/L hglxt sfod ug{' cfhsf] cfjZostf xf].
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$=! lghL If]q Joj:yfkg l;4fGt M lghL If]qsf Joj;flos ls|ofsnfkx/msf] JofVof ug]{ k|oTgsf] kmn:j?k lghL Joj:yfkgn] pkof]u ug]{ sfo{ljlwx?nfO{ cg'z/0f ul/Psf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ;+u7g k|d'vsf] kl/0ffdL rfxgf k|ltljlDjt x'g sl7g x'G5 . ;fwf/0ftM Joj:yfksnfO{ Joj:yfksLo :jtGqtf lbOof] eg] ;sf/fTds kl/0ffd k|fKt x'G5 eGg dfGotf eGbf kl/0ffdsf] rfxgf /flvG5 . lghL If]qdf cfsif{s dflgPsf s'/fx? h:t} Go"g kb;f]kfg Joj:yf, Joj:yfksLo :jtGqtf, Joj:yfksLo lgIf]k0f, /0fgLlts of]hgf, sfdsf] cfwf/df tna, sfo{;Dkfbgsf] j:t'lgi7 d"Nof+sg / ;f]xL cfwf/df b08 / k'/:sf/, kl/0ffdd'vL / u|fxsd'vL cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf klg leq\ofOg' pQd x'g] b]v]/ g} of] l;4fGt cl3 ;fl/Psf] xf] .
$=@ sf/f]af/ nfut k|efjsfl/tfsf] l;4fGt M of] Pp6f cy{zf:qLo 5gf}6sf] k"/s l;4fGt xf] . hlxn] klg ;+j4 lgsfon] k|bfg ug]{ ;]jf jf pTkfbg nfut sd x'g' kb{5 . ;]jfu|fxL;Dd j:t' jf ;]jf k|jfx ubf{ nfUg] vr{ / To;af6 cfpg] nfe aLrsf] cg'kft ljZn]if0f ubf{ oyfy{ nfutsf] k|efjsfl/tf lgl:sG5 . Joj:yfkg s'zn ljlw k|of]u ePdf ;]jfsf] nfut dxFuf] kg{ hfg] 5}g . ;fy} ;]j u'0f:t/ klg /fd|f] x'g' cfjZos 5 . o:tf] ;]jf lghL If]qaf6 lbOPsf] klg 5 . ;/sf/n] klg lsg To:ff] ug{ ;Qm}g egL k|Zg p7fpg ;lsG5 . ctM of] Pp6f cfly{s ljj]szLntfsf] dxTjk'0f{ cfofd xf] . ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ls|ofsnfknfO{ s;/L nfut k|efjL agfpg] eGg] af/]df ;+efJo /0fgLlts ljsNkx/msf] ljZn]if0f u/L pko'Qm ljsNk 5gf}6 ul/g' kb{5 . olb ;/sf/n] cfkm\gf] ;+nUgtfdf nfut k|efjsfl/tf lbg ;Qm}g eg] To:tf sfo{x? 5gf}6 ug{ ;Sg'kb{5 . tL sfo{x? lghL If]qaf6 ;DkGGf u/L s/f/, k/fdz{, lghLs/0f, 7]Ssf OToflb sfo{ljlwsf] dfWodaf6 u/fpg ;Sg'kb{5 . ctM gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] ;Lldt >f]t ;fwgsf] a9L k|efjsf/L / s'zntfk"j{s pkof]u u/]/ nlIft kl/0ffddf k'Ug] hdsf]{ ug'{ kb{5 eGg] o; l;4fGtsf] ds;b /x]sf] 5 .
$=# k|lt:k4f{Tds ahf/ l;4fGt M h;/L lghL If]qsf] Joj:yfkg k|lt:k4f{sf] dfWodaf6 u'0f:t/Lo, l56f] / ;'ne ;]jf k|jfxdf nf]slk|o ag]sf] 5, To;} u/L ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf Joj:yfkgnfO{ klg v'nf ahf/sf] k|ltikw{fdf pqg lbg'kb{5 eGg] dfGotf o; l;4fGtsf] /x]sf] 5 . lghL If]qn] cfkm\gf] k|lt:k4f{Tds Ifdtf clea[l4 ug{ ;+u7gfTDfs ;+/rgf ;'b[9, sd d"No , /fd|f] u'0f:t/, gj k|jt{g / lals| k|j4{g h:tf tYox?df ljz]if hf]8 lbPsf] x'G5 . o;sf] nflu sfo{ bIftf clej[l4 / k"0f{ nugzLntf Pj+ lg:jfy{ k|oTg ;+:yfkg kIfn] ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . olb ;fj{hlgs ls|of / ;]jf k|jfx If]qdf sfo{s'zntf, pTkfbgzLntf, u'0ffTdstf, ;Ifdtf / ljZjf;lgotf h:tf tTjx/mnfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbO{ ;dli6ut kl/0ffddf k|efjsfl/tf xfl;n x'g ;kmn ePdf ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ahf/ ;+oGqn] ljZjf; cfh{g ug{ / cl:tTj hf]ufpg ;Qm5 . casf] ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] Psflwsf/ xf]Og ahf/ k/LIf0fnfO{ cfkm\gf] 3f]lift p2]Zoleq ;d]6\g' kb{5 eGg] dfGotf g} of] l;4fGtsf] d'Vo r'/f] xf] .
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 gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf s]xL vf; lsl;dsf kmfObfx? 5g\ / ltgnfO{ o;sf ljz]iftfsf] ?kdf lgDg adf]lhd JofVof ug{ ;lsG5 M
 -!_ ;fGble{stfsf] l;4fGt -Relevency Therory_ a9\bf] zx/Ls/0f, kmf]xf]/ j:tL, k|b'lift jftfj/0f, n'6kf6, lx+;f, >d ;+u7gn] lgDTofPsf ;d:of, x8tfn, k|fljlws ljsf;af6 ;[lht r'gf}tLx? d"ntM cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf] s|flGtsf kl/0ffdx? x'g\ . oL ;d:ofx?sf] o'lQmo'Qm ;fdgf ug{ k/Dk/fut ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] g;Sg] 7x/ e}/x]sf] ;Gbe{df ;fGble{s pkfox? ;'emfpg] l;4fGtsf] ?kdf gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ljz]iftf b]vfk/]sf] 5 .
-@_ l56f]5l/tf] ;/sf/ -Swift and Lean Government_M o;df 7"nf] cfsf/sf] ax'p2]ZoLo sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ ;fgf] cfsf/sf] l56f] / 5l/tf] ;/sf/4f/f k|lt:yflkt ul/G5 . 5l/tf] / pQd ;/sf/ gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] d"n gf/f xf] . ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf ;ls|otf / k|efjsfl/tfsf] nflu of] hfoh 5 .
-#_ dfGotf k|ltsf] rf;f] -Normative Concern_ M g}lts kIf / d"No dfGotfdf cfwfl/t geOsg ;fdflhs Gofo k|fKt x'g ;Sb}g . gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] d"No :jtGqtf jf d"No t6:ytfsf] cjwf/0ffsf] la/f]w ub{5 . o;n] ;dfhdf ;fdflhs ?kdf pk]lIft ju{ / ;d'bfosf] lxt x]b{5 . t;y{, o; gofF Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|s[ltsf] cfwf/df gsf/fTds klg 5 eg]/ ;+s]t ul/G5 .
 -$_ cfd'n kl/jt{gsf/L -Paradigm Shifting_ M o;df s'g} klg ;'wf/ k|s[of ;+/rgf, sfo{ k4lt, dfgjLo kIf, ;]jfu|fxLsf] rfxgf / d'n'ssf] /fhgLlts cfly{s If]qdf Ps} ;fy ;'wf/ ug'{kb{5 eGg] l;4fGtdf cl8Psf] 5 . ljutsf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ;+:s[ltdf cfd"n kl/jt{g u/L ;/sf/L e"ldsf g} k'gM ;+/rgf ul/g' kb{5 eGg] ljz]iftf o;af6 emlNsG5 .
-%_ pknlJw / kl/0ffdd'vL -Output and Outcom Focoused+_ M of] Ps To:tf] Joj:yfksLo k|0ffnL xf], h;n] pknlJw / To;sf] kl/0ffdnfO{ a9L hf]8 lbG5 . o; Joj:yfkgn] ;fwg tyf k|s[ofnfO{ dxTj lbb}g, a? k|fKt x'g] kl/0ffdnfO{ ;fWosf] ?kdf u|x0f ub{5 .
-^_ ;fdflhs ;dGofo -+Social Equity_ M ;fdflhs ;dGofosf] l;4fGtn] lk5l8Psf / ljkGg ju{nfO{ dfly p7fpg hf]8 lbPsf] x'G5 . o;df u/La, c;xfo, zf]lift, lkl8t / zlQmxLg ;d'bfo jf ju{sf] pTyfgsf] nflu 7f]; sfo{s|d dfkm{t ;'ljwfsf] kx'Fr;Dd k'¥ofpg] nIo cl3 ;fl/Psf] x'G5 .
-&_ ahf/ ;+oGq dfly k|fyldstf -Priority to Market Mechanism_ M o;df gofF+ Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLdf ;fj{hlgs If]qn] cfkm\gf ls|ofsnfknfO{ ahf/ pGd'v cy{tGq;+u cfj4 ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . o; cg';f/ cfly{s pbf/Ls/0f, lghLs/0f, ljZjJofkLs/0f, 7]Ssf k6[f / s/f/Lo ;]jfnfO{ ahf/ ;+oGq;+u cfj4 u/L ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfx ul/Psf] 5 .
-*_ u|fxsd'vL Joj:yfkg -Client Oriented Management_ M ;dfhdf abln+bf] o'u cg's"n kl/jt{g Nofpgsf] nflu gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] dfWodaf6 hgd'vL -h;nfO{ u|fxsd'vL klg eGg ;lsG5_ k|zf;gsf] kl/sNkgf ul/Psf] 5 . gful/sx?nfO{ sxf+F, s:tf] / s] ;]jf cfjZos kb{5 < pgLx?sf] jf:tljs rfxgf s] xf]< ;f] a'em]/ dfq ;]jf k|jfx ul/g' cfjZos x'G5 . To;sf] nflu ;sf/fTds ;f]r ePsf, ;xof]uL Pj+ pBdzLn ljrf/sf hgk|zf;sx?sf] vfF+rf] kb{5 . cfk"mnfO{ hg;]js xf]Og, zf;s 7fGg] 7fn' ju{sf] g]t[Tj lnPsf] JolQmaf6 Tof] ;+ej gx'g] x'+Fbf hgtfk|lt ;dlk{t, cg'ejL k|zf;sx? lgdf{0f ug'{ o;sf] ljz]iftf leq kg]{ s'/f xf] .
 gofF+ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] ;d]6]sf k|d'v ljifox?
-s_ cfly{s ;xof]u tyf ljsf;sf] nflu ;+u7g -OECD_ sf cg';f/ M -!_ dfgj ;+;fwgsf] ;'wf/ M ;fj{hlgs If]qdf dfgj ;+;fwgsf] ;DjGwdf cfjZos ;'wf/x? ug]{ / sfdsf] cfwf/df kfl/>lds tf]Sg] sfo{ o;df kb{5 .
-@_ lg0f{o k|s[ofdf ;xeflutf ;fj{hlgs If]q4f/f ;+u7gfTds lg0f{o ug]{ k|s[ofdf ;Da4 sd{rf/Lsf] ;xeflutf oyf;+ej ;dfj]z x'g'kg]{ ljifo o; cGtu{t kb{5 .
 -#_ lgoGq0fnfO{ v's'nf] agfpg] M ;/sf/L lgoGq0f k|0ffnLnfO{ v's'nf] agfO{ pkef]Qmfsf] ljj]sk"0f{ 5gf}6nfO{ k|fylds lbOg' kg]{ 5 .
-$_ ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u M gof+ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] k"0f{ pkef]u ul/g] 5 .
-%_ u|fxsd'vL ;]jf M u|fxsx?sf] cfjZostf / dfu jdf]lhd cfjZos ;]jf k|jfx ug'{ / To;sf] k|efjsfl/tfdf Wofg lbg' kg]{ 5 .
-^_ k|of]ustf{ z'Ns M ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ;+u7gfTds ls|ofsnfkx?nfO{ lbuf] ?kdf ;+rfng ug{ ;]jf k|of]ustf{x?jf6 z'Ns k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-&_ ;]jf s/f/df lbg] M ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] If]qflwsf/df kg]{ ;+ej sfo{x?nfO{ lghL If]q tkm{ ;]jf s/f/df nufp+bf ;/sf/ / lghL If]q aLr ;xsfo{ j9g hfg] 5 .
-*_ Psflwsf/sf] cGTo M gof+ ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] k|of]ujf6 ;fj{hlgs If]qdf cg'Tkfbs ;/sf/L jf]njfnf / Psflwsf/sf] cGTo eO{ ahf/ cy{tGqsf] ljsf;df dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'u]sf] 5 .
 s= ;an kIfx? M -!_ s'g}klg k|zf;g ;+rfng ubf{ ;fdflhs GofonfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbOg' cfjZos 5 . ;dfhdf ;DkGg ju{nfO{ dfq x}g ;fwg ;|f]tdf kx'+Fr gePsf ljkGg ;d'bfonfO{ ;d]t ;d]6]/ lg0f{o ug'{kg]{ kIfnfO{ gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgn] /fd|/L klxrfg u/]sf] 5 .
-@_ of] cjwf/0ff cg';f/ ug{ vf]lhPsf] ;'wf/ k|s[ofn] ;/sf/sf] jf:tljs e'ldsfdf ;xof]uL / ;xhstf{sf] ?kdf /xg] u/L ;f] lgwf{/0f ug{ ;xof]u k'ofPsf] 5 . ;fy} lgIf]k0f / lghLs/0fdf hf]8 lbO{ gful/s ;dfhsf] e"ldsfdf a[l4 u/]sf] 5 .
 -#_ k|zf;sn] t6:y a:g] s'/fdf eGbf ljkGg ju{sf nflu ljz]if sfo{s|d nfu" u/]/ pgLx?sf] :t/ dfly p7fpg' kb{5 eGg] dfGotfnfO{ o;sf] ;an kIfsf] ?kdf u|x0f ul/Psf] 5 .
-$_ k|zf;gdf d"No, dfGotf / g}ltstfnfO{ pk]Iff ug{ gx'g], a[xt ;fdflhs Gofo / dfgjlxt, ljslGb] |t zf;g / kl/jt{g Pj+ gofF kg g} o;sf u'0f kIfx? x'g\ .
 -%_ o;n] 36gfs|d cWoog -Case study_ nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] / ;+s6sf] a]nfdf k|zf;snfO{ sfd ug{ pTk]|l/t ug]{ x'+Fbf o;nfO{ ;fdflhs ;d:of lg/fs/0f tkm{ pGd'v cfw'lgs l;4fGt elgPsf] 5 .
 -^_ of] l;4fGt ;/n, ;do ;'xfpFbf] / Jojxfl/s ePsf]n] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;lhnf] x'g] b]lvG5 .
 -&_ u}/ ;/sf/L If]q;+u ;xsfo{, sfo{ ;Dkfbg k|ltj]bg, Ps4f/ gLlt h:tf dfWodaf6 ;/sf/L ;+oGqnfO{ sd vlr{nf] agfpg o;n] e/k"/ d2t u/]sf] 5 .
 v= b'a{n kIfx? M -!_ of] cfk\mgf] 5'6[} l;4fGt gePsf], k/Dk/fut Joj:yfkgsf] ;'wf/ dfq ul/Psf] / lghL If]qsf] Joj:yfkgaf6 ;fk6L lnOPsf] tyf sfof{Gjog ug{ cndn kg]{ l;4fGtsf] ?kdf cfnf]lrt 5 .
 -@_ zf;g Joj:yf ;+rfngsf] nflu /fhg}lts k2ltsf] dxTjk"0f{ :yfg /xg] / /fhgLlt / k|zf;g aLr /x]sf] gª df;'sf] ;DaGwnfO{ o;n] 5'6[fpg] k|oTg ug]{ xF'+bf] dfgjLo d"No dfGotftkm{ hlt hf]8 lbOPklg o;sf] Tof] kIf sdhf]/ /x]sf] dflgG5 .
-#_ o;n] Oltxf;df 7"nf] of]ubfg lbb} cfPsf] k|zf;g ;DaGwL k/Dk/fut dfGotfnfO{ k'/} c:jLsf/ ub{5 . t/ cfsf+Iff / Jojxf/df Tof] ;Dej xF'b}g .
 -$_ k|zf;gdf pRr k|ljlwsf] k|of]u, DofS; j]j/sf] kb;f]kfg, tf]lsPsf] ju{sf] dfq lxt / d"No dfGotfdf hf]8h:tf s'/fx? o;sf cJojxfl/s kIf x'g\ .
 -%_ hgpQ/bfloTj / ;dfgtfsf] :ki6tf o;af6 kfO{+b}g . /fHosf] e"ldsf slt 36fpg] eGg] s'g} dfkb08 5}g . ahf/ l;4fGtdf cToflws hf]8 lbO{+bf ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf gfKg ;lsb}g, ldNb}g .
 -^_ of] l;4fGt k|zf;gsf] k|fyldstf, sfo{k2lt, ljsf; k|zf;g / ljsl;t Pj+ ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf] ljBdfg cj:yf k|lt k"0f{tM :ki6 b[li6sf]0f k|:t't ug{ c;Ifd b]lvG5 .
*= g]kfndf gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] k|of]u e"d08nLs/0fsf] jt{dfg ljZjdf ljsl;t klZrdf /fi6«x?df cfPsf] x/]s ;'wf/ / hfu/0fsf] k|efj g]kfndf klg cjZo kg]{ u/]sf] 5 . t/ kl/j{ltt cjwf/0ffnfO{ Jojxf/df k"0f{tM c+lusf/ ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g . xfdLsxfF x/]s If]qdf ;/sf/L ;+nUgtf oyfjt /x]sf] 5 . h:fsf] sf/0faf6 ;/sf/L ;+u7gx? cgfjZos ?kdf af]lemnf] / ef/o'Qm ePsf 5g\ . vf; u/L /fli6«o ljsf;sf ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x? ;/sf/n] dfq ;DkGg ug'{ kb{5 eg] ;f]rfO{n] ubf{ oxfF gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf cfofdx? ;':t ultdf kl/rflnt 5g\ . o;af6 /fli6«o hghLjgsf] ljleGg If]qdf ;/sf/L lgoGq0f sfod} b]lvG5 . ljsf;sf ljljw If]qdf ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] Psflwsf/ oyfjt g} 5 . ;/sf/L lgsfodf hjfkmb]lxtfsf] efjgf ck]lIft ?kdf ljsl;t x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;fgf eGbf ;fgf lgdf{0f sfo{ b]lv a[xt kl/of]hgf ;Dd, pkef]Uo ;fdfgsf] cfk"lt{ b]lv d"No lgwf{/0f ;Dd ;/sf/L x:tIf]k /xgfn] ;/sf/L ;+oGqdf cgfjZos ef/ a9\g uPsf] 5 . h;af6 cgfjZos ?kdf ;/sf/L bfloTj klg a9\g uPsf] 5 .
 (= lg:sif{ M 
;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] If]qdf ljZj hutn] k'gMcfsf/ ln+b} 5 . o;sf gofF cleoGtfx? cGt/f{li6«o kl/b[iodf pbo ePsf 5g\ . of] cj:yfn] zf;sLo lhDdf kfPsfx?;+u gofF, lta| / ultzLn sfo{ k|0ffnLsf] dfu ub{5 . of] cToGt gofF jf:tljstfnfO{ cfTd;ft ub{} /fHok|ltsf] cjwf/0ffdf k'gM ljrf/ ug'{kg]{ ePsf] 5 . ;fy} Ifdtfx?sf] / sfo{x?sf] k'gMkl/efiff ug'{kg]{ ePsf] 5 . t/ xf]l;of/L s] s'/fdf /fVg' kb{5 eg] c;fGwl{e{s If]qx? o;df ;dfj]z x'g'xF'b}g . ljutdf xfd|f pRrtd k|fyldstfx? cfGtl/s rfxgf / k|zf;lgs sfo{of]hgf;+u ;DalGwt lyP . olb xfdLn] cj;/sf] k"0f{ nfe lng] xf] eg] gofF ljZjJofkL jf:tljstfnfO{ u|x0f u/L tL s'/fx? ;f/f gful/sx?sf] nflu kx'Fr of]Uo agfpg' kb{5 . /fHosf] alnof] ;+/rgf x'g'kb{5, h'g p;sf] Ifdtf / kl/jt{gsf] cfsf+Iff leq xf];\ . To:tf] ;+/rgf h;n] pTkfbgsf] gofF :j?k, ;xeflutf, lzIff, / zflGtk"0f{ ;x cl:tTjnfO{ cl3 a9fpg ;sf];\ . 

/fHon] To:tf cj:yfx? ;[hgf ug{ / ;'b[9 ug{ ;Ifd x'g'kb{5, h;n] ;du| ljZjsf] ljsf;df g} ;a}eGbf k|efjsf/L dfWodaf6 xftdf xft a9fP/ cl3 a9\g ;lsof];\ . t/ o;sf] nflu r'gf}tLx? cjZo 5g\ . tLgnfO{ ;fdfgf ug{ o'lQmo'Qm OR5f, /fHosf ;a} lgsfox?df x/]s tx, ju{ / tKsfsf] ;dfj]zLs/0f, gofF vf]h / Jojxfl/s hutsf k'/ftgjfbL dfGotfx?nfO{ o'ufg's'n kl/jt{g ug'{ kb{5 . To;sf] Psdfq pkfo eg]sf] cfd gful/sx?df cfjZos cfTdljZjf; ljsf; u/L ;/sf/df pgLx?sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg' kb{5 . xfdL To:tf sfo{x? ug{ ta dfq ;dIf x'g] 5f+,} ha ;a} gful/sx? /fi6«sf] ;fd'lxs ljsf;df c+lzof/ aGgnfO{ lbn}b]lv sl6j4 x'g]5f}+ . 55 ljZjsf] s'g} klg /fi6«n] gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf dfGotfx?nfO{ gh/cGbfh u/]/ sbflk cl3 a9\g ;Sg] l:ylt ca /x]g . elgG5, o;sf sltko dfGotfx? s7f]/ / ljsl;t ;dfhsf] nflu dfq lkm6 x'g] vfnsf 5g\ . t/ o;df b'O{ dt 5}g ls u/La, k5f}6] / cljsl;t d'n'ssf] nflu klg tL dfGotfx? k|]/0ffsf] >f]t cjZo x'g]5g\ . yf}/} vr{df w]/} pknlJw g} of] gofF df]8nsf] s]Gb|Lo ljifoj:t' xf] . To:tf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug]{ tl/sf, k|s[of / af6f]x? to ul/Psf] klg 5 . b]zsf] j:t'l:ylt;+u d]n vfg] u/L o; l;4fGtnfO{ c+uLsf/ ug{ cjZo ;lsG5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff leq\ofpg] k|of; ePtfklg xftnfUbf] pknlJw / kl/0ffdsf] nflu nfd} ;do kv{g' kg{] b]lvG5 . 

hgcfGbf]ng b'O kl5 :yflkt nf]stGqdf klg k|zf;g k|lt hgljZjf; cfh{g x'g ;ssf] 5}]g . k|ltj4tf, of]Uotf, s'zntf, pQ/bfloTj / kf/blz{tf eGg] lrh ;'emfj k|ltj]bgdf ;hfP/ /flvPsf] 5 . k|zf;gdf s]Gb|Ls[t z}nL xfjL 5 . tNnf] txnfO{ ljZjf;df lng hflgPg jf ;lsPg . ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] pkef]u /fd|/L x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . sd{rf/Lx?df gftfjfb, s[kfjfb, bf; dgf]j[QL , e|i6frf/, / rfs8L k|yf c? a9L km:6fpFbf] s|ddf 5 . ;/sf/ g} k"0f{ pQ/bfoL / lhDd]jf/Lk"j{s rNg ;s]sf] 5}g . ;+s|d0fsfnLg /fhgLlts clglZrttf, cfGtl/s ;Qf ;+3if{, czflGt / r/d ljs[lt / ljjfbsf sf/0f /fHooGq g} c;kmntfsf] lbzfdf ws]lnPsf] x'Fbf g]kfndf gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . of] cjwf/0ff d"ntM ljsf;zLn d'n'ssf nflu j/bfg ;fljt x'g'kg]{ xf] . k/Dk/fut sfo{z}nLdf cfd'n kl/jt{g u/]/ nIod'vL, ljsf;d'vL, nlrnf] ljQLo cg'zf;g, p2]Zod"ns Jojxf/af6 cl3 a9\g] l;4fGt ePsf]n] o;sf] pkof]lutf ax't} dxTjk"0f{ dflgPsf] xf] . s]xL sdL sdhf]/L o;df /x]tf klg lghL If]qsf] Joaxfl/s k|of]uaf6 Hofb} ;kmn 7fg]/ ;fj{hlgs If]qdf kbfk0f{ ul/Psf] of] l;4fGtnfO{ s'g} xfntdf klg nfu" ug}{ kb{5 . 

k]zfut Ifdtf, ;/sf/L / lghL ;fem]bf/L, dfgj ;+;fwg ljsf;, glthfd"ns sfo{;Dkfbg, k|ToIf pQ/bfloTj, Joj:yfksLo nrstf, kl/0ffdd'vL, k|efjsfl/tf, ;xefuLtfd"ns, ;]jfu|fxLd'vL, 5l/tf] / cTo'Qd ;/sf/, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, cfw'lgs ;"rgf k|ljlwdf hf]8, pkef]Qmfsf] /f]hfO{, dfgj ;|f]t k/LIf0f, ahf/d'vL Joj:yfkg, uxg, sd vr{ / a9L pknlJw O{Toflbh:tf k|efjsf/L tTjx? ;dfj]z ePsf] gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf u'0fx?nfO{ cjnDag ul/g' ;'b[9 ljZj cfly{s Joj:yfsf] nflu g} ckl/xfo{tf xf] . t;y{ o; l;4fGtnfO{ b[9tfk"j{s nfu" ub}{ hfg' vf;u/L cljsl;t /fi6«x?sf] cfhsf] cfjZostf klg xf] . ha;Dd /fHon] ljkGg ju{ / lgd'vf hgtfx?x?sf] pGgtLsf] nflu 7f]; gLlt Pj+ sfo{s|d th'{df ub}{g, ta;Dd b]zn] ljsf;sf] utL lnO{ sf]N6] km]g{ ;Qm}g . To;sf/0f gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfcfkmgf] b]zsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts / /fhgLlts k[i7e"dLdf k|To]s /fi6«x?n] u|x0f u/L nfu" ub}{ hfg' kb{5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lx?
 6]sgf/fo0f s'Fj/ k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf jif{ #*, c+s #, k"0ff{Í !)^, Editors Dennis A. Rondinelli and G. Shabbir Cheema (2002), Reinventing Government for the Twenty-First Century,Bloomfield,USA • Madhu Raman Acharya (2002), Business of Bureaucracy, Kathmandu • Nicholas Henary (2001), Public Administration and Public Affairs, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi • Dr. Ken Afful (2000), Management and Organization Behaviour, Ekata Books, Kathmandu • 8f= eLdb]j e6[ -@)^)_, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt lji0f' ;'j]bL -@)^)_, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g tyf k|zf;sLo Joj:yfkg ;kfbs Zofd s'df/ e6[/fO{ -@)^!_, gjLgtd k|zf;lgs b[li6sf]0fx?, ;f]kfg dfl;s sf7df08f} zf/bf k|;fb lqtfn -@)^!_, gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgM cjwf/0ff / k|of]u, o'j/fh kf08] -@)^!_, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / ;fj{hlgs sfo{ Joj:yfkg, ljBfyL{ k':ts e08f/, sf7df08f} 4fl/sfgfy 9+'u]n, cRo'taxfb'/ /fhe08f/L -@)^)_, ;'zf;gsf cfofdx?,  k|zf;g ;'wf/ cof]usf k|ltj]bgx?, sf7df08f} afnuf]ljGb lji6 -@)^@_

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